# What is a Variable?

## Introduction

As discussed in the last tutorial, t is essential to know how to search for reputable journals and research articles. Once you have acquired this skill, the next steps involve understanding the structure of research articles and how to utilize them effectively. This process is crucial when you need to propose your own research topic. In this context, we will explore the concept of variables, which serves as a fundamental pillar in quantitative research. Further, Independent and dependent variables form the core of research investigations, dictating the relationships and impacts under study. As you embark on your research journey, it is vital to comprehend these concepts and their significance in shaping the research process.

### Learn the Concept of Variables

The tutorial is a step by step guide on how to start the research process.
Last Lecture: How to search Journal in Master Journal List

## Understanding the Concept of Variables

#### Variables: The Essence of Quantitative Research

Variables are central to quantitative research, and they represent the core elements that researchers investigate. When we delve into a research paper, identifying and comprehending these variables are pivotal. To illustrate this concept, consider a scenario where you wish to investigate how servant leadership either influences or is influenced by various other factors. In this pursuit, it is vital to recognize what variables are and their significance in shaping the research process.

#### Variables in Research Papers

To identify the presence of variables in a research paper, one can initially look for specific keywords and indicators in the paper’s title, abstract, or content. These keywords often hint at the quantitative nature of the study. Furthermore, the presence of a hypothesis is a strong indicator of variables in play. Hypotheses represent the researcher’s attempt to understand the impact of one variable on another. The directional arrows connecting variables within hypotheses reveal the relationships under investigation.

#### Understanding Variables: A Fundamental Concept

Before delving further into variables, it is essential to grasp their fundamental nature. Variables are, in essence, elements that exhibit variation or change across different dimensions. They can vary from person to person, change over time, or differ across various locations. Consider age, culture, and gender as prime examples of variables, each displaying varying attributes across individuals, time, and places.

#### Variables in Practice: The Case of Servant Leadership

To elucidate the concept of variables, consider the variable of “servant leadership.” In an organizational context, this variable can be perceived differently by different followers. Some may view their leader as a true exemplar of servant leadership, while others may hold contrasting opinions. This variability in perception makes “servant leadership” a variable. Exploring how such variations impact other organizational aspects like operational efficiency, employee turnover, collaborative culture, or internal service quality becomes a crucial research endeavor.

#### Type of Variables

Variables in research come in various forms. Researchers often classify them as independent variables, dependent variables, mediating variables, or moderating variables, depending on their roles and relationships within the research framework. These diverse types of variables will be explored in greater detail in upcoming sessions, as they play distinct roles in shaping the research process.

## Type of Variables

#### Independent Variable: The Cause of Influence

An independent variable is the driving force behind an effect or influence in a research study. It is the element that causes a change or impact on another variable. In the context of your research, consider the example of assessing how servant leadership influences project success. Here, “servant leadership” is your independent variable (IV) because it is the factor causing an influence on “project success.” The direction of influence is indicated by the arrow, signifying that servant leadership is the driving force behind changes in project success.

#### Dependent Variable: The Outcome of Influence

Conversely, a dependent variable is the one that is affected or influenced by changes in an independent variable. It is the variable that researchers aim to measure or observe as an outcome. In the aforementioned scenario, “project success” serves as the dependent variable (DV) because it is the variable being influenced by “servant leadership.” The arrow indicating the influence flows from the independent variable to the dependent variable, showcasing the cause-and-effect relationship under investigation.

#### The Role of Variables in Research

Variables, whether independent or dependent, play pivotal roles in research. Your research topic, in this case, “servant leadership,” is essentially a variable of interest. It is the aspect you are investigating for variation or change. In this context, servant leadership is both your research topic and an independent variable, given its influential role in affecting other variables like project success.

#### Diverse Relationships in Research

Research studies can involve various relationships between independent and dependent variables. For instance, your study may explore how “personality” (independent variable) influences “servant leadership” (dependent variable). In another scenario, “corporate social responsibility” (independent variable) might impact “organizational performance” (dependent variable). The nature of these relationships guides the classification of variables into independent and dependent categories.

#### Determining Research Relationships

Identifying the relationships you wish to assess in your study is a critical step in the research process. The specific relationships you investigate will define your research objectives and guide your data collection and analysis. Deciding which variables are independent and which are dependent depends on the direction of influence you seek to explore.

In conclusion, understanding the concept of variables is foundational to conducting effective quantitative research. Variables are dynamic and multifaceted, influencing the formulation of research questions and the design of research studies. With a grasp of this fundamental concept, researchers are better equipped to navigate the intricate landscape of quantitative research methodologies. Furthermore, understanding the concepts of independent and dependent variables is foundational to conducting effective research. These variables dictate the cause-and-effect relationships under examination, shaping the research questions and methodologies employed. As you delve into your research endeavors, mastering the roles of these variables will empower you to design and execute research studies with clarity and precision. In the next session, we will delve into moderating and mediating variables, further enhancing our grasp of research methodology.