Hayes Process Macro - Model 4 - Mediation Analysis
Hayes Process Model - Lecture Series
The tutorial will guide on Model 4 of the Hayes Process Macro for Mediation Analysis.
- Up to this point, we have focused on how to perform moderation analysis using the Process Macro.
- Let’s now examine how the influence between two constructs may take an indirect path through a third variable called a mediator.
- In these situations, the third variable will intervene on the influence of the two constructs (Hair et al. 2009).
- In testing if “mediation” or the presence of a mediator in a model, you need to understand some of the terminology that is used, such as direct effect, indirect effect, and total effects.
A direct effect is simply a direct relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable in presence of the Mediator (c’).
An indirect effect is the relationship that flows from an independent variable to a mediator and then to a dependent variable (a*b).
The term total effect is the combined influence of the direct effect between two constructs and the indirect effect flowing through the mediator (c = c’ + a*b).
- c in the relationship between X and Y is the total effect.
- We want to examine if the construct of Culture has an indirect effect through Commitment on the construct of Organizational Performance.
Conceptual and Statistical Diagram
- Example Variables: 1 predictor X, 1 Mediator M, and 1 Outcome Y
- The variables are continuous
How to Run
- Step 1: Analyze -> Regression -> Process v4.0 by Andrew F. Hayes
- Step 2: Put in the Required Variables. In this case,
- Y Variable (Dependent Variable) is OP
- X Variable (Independent Variable) is Culture
- Mediator is Commitment
- Model Number is 4
- Step 3: Select Option Button, and Choose the options as shown in the figure below ()
- Select Show total effect model (only models 4,6,70,81, 82), this is to generate total effect estimates.
- For Standardized effect, select Standardized effects (mediation-only models).
- Press Continue
Output Interpretation - Basic Summary
- Description of Model along with the different variables where Y is Dependent Variable, X is Independent Variable, and M is the Mediating Variable.
Output Interpretation - Model Summary
- Model Summary, provides summary of the model with R, R-Sq, F Statistics, and P value for the overall model.
- Next, is the coefficients, with impact of Culture on Commitment
- Culture has a significant impact on Commitment. This is path a.