# Hayes Process Macro - Model 4 - Mediation Analysis

### Hayes Process Model - Lecture Series

The tutorial will guide on Model 4 of the Hayes Process Macro for Mediation Analysis.

## Introduction

- Up to this point, we have focused on how to perform moderation analysis using the Process Macro.
- Let’s now examine how the influence between two constructs may take an indirect path through a third variable called a
**mediator**. - In these situations, the third variable will intervene on the influence of the two constructs (Hair et al. 2009).
- In testing if “mediation” or the presence of a mediator in a model, you need to understand some of the terminology that is used, such as
**direct effect**,**indirect effect**, and**total effects**. A

**direct effect**is simply a direct relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable in presence of the Mediator (**c’**).An

**indirect effect**is the relationship that flows from an independent variable to a mediator and then to a dependent variable (**a*b**).The term

**total effect**is the combined influence of the direct effect between two constructs and the indirect effect flowing through the mediator (**c****=****c’****+****a*********b**).

**c**in the relationship between X and Y is the**total effect.**

## Example

- We want to examine if the construct of Culture has an
**indirect effect**through Commitment on the construct of Organizational Performance.

## Conceptual and Statistical Diagram

- Example Variables: 1 predictor X, 1 Mediator M, and 1 Outcome Y
- The variables are continuous

## How to Run

- Step 1: Analyze -> Regression -> Process v4.0 by Andrew F. Hayes

- Step 2: Put in the Required Variables. In this case,
- Y Variable (Dependent Variable) is OP
- X Variable (Independent Variable) is Culture
- Mediator is Commitment
- Model Number is 4

- Step 3: Select Option Button, and Choose the options as shown in the figure below ()
**Select Show total effect model (only models 4,6,70,81, 82),**this is to generate total effect estimates.- For Standardized effect, select Standardized effects (mediation-only models).
- Press
__C__ontinue

## Output Interpretation - Basic Summary

## Output Interpretation - Model Summary

- Model Summary, provides summary of the model with R, R-Sq, F Statistics, and P value for the overall model.
- Next, is the coefficients, with impact of Culture on Commitment
- Culture has a significant impact on Commitment. This is path a.