Hayes Process Macro - Model 4 - Multiple Mediation Analysis

Hayes Process Macro - Lecture Series

The tutorial will guide on Model 4 of the Hayes Process Macro for Mediation Analysis.


  • Up to this point, we have focused on how to perform moderation analysis using the Process Macro.
  • Let’s now examine how the influence between two constructs may take an indirect path through a third variable called a mediator.
  • In these situations, the third variable will intervene on the influence of the two constructs (Hair et al. 2009).
  • In testing if “mediation” or the presence of a mediator in a model, you need to understand some of the terminology that is used, such as direct effect, indirect effect, and total effects.
  • A direct effect is simply a direct relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable in presence of the Mediator (c’).

  • An indirect effect is the relationship that flows from an independent variable to a mediator and then to a dependent variable (a*b).

  • The term total effect is the combined influence of the direct effect between two constructs and the indirect effect flowing through the mediator (c = c’ + a*b).

  • c in the relationship between X and Y is the total effect.


  • We want to examine if the construct of Culture has an indirect effect through Commitment and Reliability on the construct of Organizational Performance.

Conceptual and Statistical Diagram

  • Example Variables: 1 predictor X, 1 Mediator M, and 1 Outcome Y
  • The variables are continuous

How to Run

  • Step 1: Analyze -> Regression -> Process v4.0 by Andrew F. Hayes

  • Step 2: Put in the Required Variables. In this case,
    • Y Variable (Dependent Variable) is OP
    • X Variable (Independent Variable) is Culture
    • Mediator is Commitment
    • Model Number is 4
  • Step 3: Select Option Button, and Choose the options as shown in the figure below ()
    • Select Show total effect model (only models 4,6,70,81, 82), this is to generate total effect estimates.
    • For Standardized effect, select Standardized effects (mediation-only models).
    • Press Continue

Output Interpretation - Basic Summary

  • Description of Model along with the different variables where Y is Dependent Variable, X is Independent Variable, and M is the Mediating Variable.

Output Interpretation - Model Summary

  • Model Summary, provides summary of the model with R, R-Sq, F Statistics, and P value for the overall model.
  • Next, is the coefficients, with impact of Culture on Commitment
  • Next, is the coefficients, with impact of Culture on Commitment
  • Culture has a significant impact on Commitment (b = 0.6041, t = 14.1355, p < 0.001). This is path a1.